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Nutrient requirements of warmwater fishes

Table 1 Summary of Information on Mineral Requirements of Fish

Mineral element Principal metabolic activities Requirement symptoms Requirement / kg dry diet
Calcium Bone and cartilage formation; blood clotting; muscle contraction not defined 5g
Phosphorus Bone formation; high energy phosphate esters; other organo-phosphorus compounds Lordosis, poor growth 7g
Magnesium Enzyme co-factor extensively involved in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins Loss of appetite, poor growth, tetany 500 mg
Sodium Primary monovalent cation of inter cellular fluid; involved in acid-base balance and osmoregulation not defined 1-3g
Potassium Primary monovalent cation of intra-cellular fluid; involved in nerve action and osmoregulation not defined 1-3g
Sulphur Integral part of sulphur amino acids and collagen; involved in detoxification of aromatic compounds not defined 3-5g
Chlorine Primary monovalent anion in cellular fluids; component of digestive juice (HCl); acid-base balance not defined 1-5g
Iron Essential constituent of haeme in haemoglobin, cytochromes, peroxidases, etc. Microcytic, homochronic anaemia 50-00 mg
Copper Component of haeme in haemocyanin (of cephalopods); co-factor in tyrosinase and ascorbic acid oxidase not defined 1-4g
Manganese Co-factor for arginase and certain other metabolic enzymes; involved in bone formation and erythrocyte regeneration not defined 20-50 mg
Cobalt Metal component of cyanocobalamin (B12). Prevents anaemia; involved in C1 and C3 metabolism not defined 5-10 mg
Zinc Essential for insulin structure and function; co-factor of carbonic anhydrase not defined 30-100 mg
Iodine Constituent of thyroxine; regulates oxygen use Thyroid hyperplasia (goiter) 100-300 mg
Molybdenum Co-factor of xanthine, oxidase, hydrogenases and reductases not defined (trace)
Chromium Involved in collagen formation and regulation of the rate of glucose metabolism not defined (trace)
Fluorine Component of bone appatite not defined (trace)

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