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Mill by-products for Fish Feed Manufacture

1 Wheat Germ Meal
Wheat germ meal consists chiefly of the germs of the wheat berry, with some bran and middlings. A rather wide variety of wheat germ grades are produced, depending on the area and regional demand. The quality of wheat germ meal is influenced by the presence of screenings and the level, of other wheat products, which can lower the fat or protein level. Excessive storage time may result in rancidity, due to the oxidation of the rather high level of fat. Generally, I wheat germ meal may have a crude protein level of 25-30 percent; crude fat, 7-12 percent; and crude fibre, 3-6 percent.

2 Wheat Red Dog
Wheat red dog consists of offal from the tail of the mill, together with some fine particles of wheat bran, wheat germ and wheat flour. Wheat red dog is a fine, floury, light-coloured feed ingredient. The colour may range from creamy white to light brown or light red, depending on the type of wheat being milled. Wheat red dog can act as a pellet binder, as well as contributor of protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins to the feed. Wheat red dog may have a crude protein level of 15.5-17.5 percent; crude fat, 3.5-4.5 percent; and crude fibre, 2.8-4.0 percent.

3 Wheat Bran
Wheat bran is the coarse outer covering of the wheat berry. Sometimes screenings are ground and added to the bran. Wheat bran contributes bulk to ruminant feeds and is a source of carbohydrates, protein, minerals and vitamins. Generally, wheat bran will have a crude protein level of 14-17 percent; crude fat, 3-4.5 percent; and crude fibre, 10.5-12 percent.

4 Wheat Middlings
Wheat middlings consist of fine particles of wheat bran, wheat shorts, wheat germ, wheat flour and some of the offal from the tail of the mill. The quality of middlings may be influenced by the amount of screenings added and the fineness of grind. A moisture level over 14 percent may cause problems, especially in hot, humid climates. Wheat middlings have a crude protein, level of 15-17 percent; crude fat, 3-4 percent; and crude fibre, 8.5-9.5 percent.

5 Wheat Mill Run
Wheat mill run consists of wheat bran, fine particles of wheat bran, wheat shorts, wheat germ, wheat flour and the offal from the tail of the mill. Ground run of the mill screenings are normally added. Wheat mill run is available in the west, but not normally found in other areas of the country where mill run is separated into bran, middlings and red dog. Wheat mill run may have a crude protein level of 14-17 percent; crude fat, 3-4 percent and crude fibre, 8.5-9.5 percent.

6 Corn Gluten Feed
Corn gluten feed is that part of commercial shelled corn that remains after the extraction of the larger portion of the starch, gluten and germ by the process employed in the wet milling manufacture of corn starch or syrup. Generally, corn gluten feed will contain a crude protein level of 21-22 percent; crude fat, 1-2.5 percent; and crude fibre, 8-10 percent.

7 Corn Gluten Meal
Corn gluten meal is the dried residue from corn after the larger part of the starch and germ have been removed and the bran separated by the process employed in the wet milling manufacture of corn starch or syrup, or by enzymatic treatment of the endosperm. Corn gluten meal may contain fermented corn extractives and/or corn germ meal. The crude protein level may range from 41-43 percent; crude fat, 1-3 percent; crude fibre, 4-6 percent; and xanthophyll, 140-220 mg/kg.

8 Rice Groats
Rice groats are the ground rice kernel, without the bran. Rice groats contain approximately a crude protein level of 8.6 percent; crude fat, 1.2 percent; and crude fibre, 1.0 percent.

9 Rice Bran with Germ
Rice bran with germ is primarily the pericarp or bran layer and the germ portions of the rice kernel. The crude protein level is approximately 13.3 percent; crude fat, 15.0 percent; and crude fibre, 11.0 percent.

10 Rice Polishings
Rice polishings are the outer portions of the rice kernel produced by the process used in producing polished white rice. Rice polishings have a crude protein level of 11.8 percent; crude fat, 13.2 percent; and crude fibre, 3.0 percent.

11 Oat Groats
Oat groats are the cleaned oats with their hulls removed. Generally, oat groats will contain a crude protein level of 16 percent; crude fat, 6 percent', and crude fibre, 2 percent.

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