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Animal by-products

1 Hydrolyzed Poultry Feathers
Feathers from poultry are collected, ground and hydrolyzed under pressure. During processing the cystine linkage is broken, increasing the value of the meal. Not less than 75 percent of the crude protein must be pepsin digestible. Generally, hydrolyzed poultry feathers will range in crude protein from 80 to 85 percent; crude fat, 2.5 percent; crude fibre, 1.5 percent; phosphorus, 0.75 percent; and ash about 3 percent.

Animal by-products
2 Meat and Bone Meal
Meat and bone meal is the dry rendered product derived from mammalian tissue, exclusive of hair, hoof, horn, manure and paunch contents. The relatively high fat content of meat and bone meal apparently helps protect the lysine content during rendering. Meat and bone meal generally contain a crude protein of 50 percent; fat, 8-11 percent; crude fibre, 3 percent phosphorus, 4.4-5 percent; calcium, 8.8-10 percent; and ash, about 30 percent.

3 Fish Meals
Fish meals are manufactured by cooking fish, pressing to remove water and oil, and then drying. Fish meals are often made from a single species of fish, e.g., herring meal, but meals containing more than one species, such as bottom fish meal, are also sold. Generally, the single species meals are more uniform in quality. Some typical analyses follow:
Crude protein (%) Crude fat (%) Crude fibre (%) Sodium (%)  
Herring meal 70 7.5 1 0.5
Menhaden meal 60 7.5 - 0.3
Anchovy meal 64 6 1 0.8
Carp meal, whole 75 9.5 - -
Shrimp meal 36-48 3 11 -
Crab meal 30 1.7 11 -
Bottom fish meal 60 - - -

4 Blood Meal
Blood meal is produced from clean fresh animal blood, exclusive of all extraneous material such as hair, stomach contents, etc. Blood meal may be dried by several processes, but most often by spray drying. Spray dried blood meal has approximately a crude protein level of 85 percent; crude fat, 0.5-3 percent; crude fibre, 2.5 percent; ash, 6 percent; and lysine, 9-11 percent, with an availability of 80-90 percent.

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