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Commonly used feed antioxidants

Of the chemical compounds that have been investigated thus far, three have been found to be outstandingly effective antioxidants for feeds and feed ingredients and can be used both efficiently and economically. They are:
(a) Ethoxyquin (generic term: 1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2,2,4- trimethylquinoline)
(b) BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole);
(c) BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)

Ethoxyquin, however, has been demonstrated to be the most efficaceous, followed closely by BHT and BHA.

With the advent of rations containing a high level of animal and vegetable fats, the requirement for antioxidant protection has become very apparent. The majority of studies over the last few years has focused on ethoxyquin as a preservative or antioxidant. Other chemical preservatives are: ascorbic acid, propionic acid, benzoic acid, citric acid and their various salts. There are technological problems (i.e., moisture level, etc.) associated with the use of these preservatives. Economics, however, remain the most important consideration which limit their use in fish foods.

A list of chemical preservatives appears in Table 1.

Table 1 Commonly Used Chemical Preservatives Generally Recognized as Safe

Ascorbic acid
Ascorbyl palmitate
Benzoic acid
Calcium ascorbate
Calcium propionate
Calcium sorbate
Citrate acid
Dilauryl thiodipropionate
Distearyl thiodipropionate
Erythorbic acid
Formic acid
Potassium bisulphite
Potassium metabisulphite
Potassium sorbate
Propionic acid
Propul gallate
Propul paraben
Resin guaiae
Sodium ascorbate
Sodium benzoate
Sodium bisulphite
Sodium metabisulphite
Sodium nitrite
Sodium propionate
Sodium sorbate
Sodium sulphite
Sorbic acid
Stannous chloride
Sulphur dioxide
THBP - Trihydroxy-butyrophenone
TBHQ - Tertiary-butylhydroquinone
Thiodipinic acid

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